When it was founded, the Coalition of Essential Schools was founded on nine Common Principles developed by Theodore R. Sizer as an extension of the research on the American high school that led to the publication of Horace’s Compromise.
The tenth Common Principle, known as “Democracy and Equity” joined the group in during Fall Forum 1997, as recounted by Kathleen Cushman in “Democracy and Equity: CES’s Tenth Common Principle.” In full, it reads:
Democracy and equity: The school should demonstrate non-discriminatory and inclusive policies, practices, and pedagogies. It should model democratic practices that involve all who are directly affected by the school. The school should honor diversity and build on the strength of its communities, deliberately and explicitly challenging all forms of inequity.
For the full set of the CES Common Principles, click on the image to the right.